1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

Families in Need Receive Renovated Houses - Presentation by Constança de Pina


This text demonstrates how a simple action can improve the life of a family. If political will at both the local and central level is accompanied by the financial resources required to construct houses, the first of the eight Millennium Development Goals can be achieved. This is of great importance, given that the construction of houses provides a solution to one of the main problems affecting today’s society, particularly in urban areas where populations fleeing the countryside due to hunger, drought and/or wars come together.  
We begin with the happy story of the provision of two houses for female-headed families, subsequently expanding the discussion to focus on the interesting project "A house for Everyone" enacted in Cape Verde.
The lives of two low-income families changed significantly as a result of the work of a community-based organisation that built new homes for both families. In doing so, the Friends of Brazil Association, with the support of the Bolsa de Valores de Cabo Verde (The Cape Verde Stock Exchange - BVC) and other businesses on the island of Santiago (Cape Verde), enabled the families to escape extreme poverty.
Over the last few years, Cape Verde, with its 500,000-strong population, has seen a loss of 80,000 homes. To resolve this issue, the government – as part of the “A house for Everyone” project carried out with Portuguese funding of 200 million euros (2.4 million Cape Verdean escudos) – is constructing around 80,000 homes across the islands of Cape Verde, providing work for more than 4,000 people. The project represents a contribution to policies that seek to ensure the right to adequate housing. The construction of housing is also one of the projects carried out by local municipalities, albeit on a smaller scale.
The project is also aimed at young graduates in search of their first home. This is due to the fact that a number of municipalities seek to avoid ‘brain drain’ to Cape Verde’s largest and richest cities: Praia and Mindelo.
From the passage of its first item of legislation (2001), the government of Cape Verde has invested heavily in social policies that favour the construction of houses – one of its main public-policy priorities. In an effort to achieve this objective, 2009 was declared the “National Year of Housing”.
In 2009, a series of policy measures to improve housing in the country were also enacted, in an attempt to progressively put in place the conditions required to guarantee the right to adequate housing.



"The Hungry" by Maria de Lourdes Jesus - Summary by Mare Caela

The article is interesting because the author tells the story of the thousands of people who died of starvation in Cape Verde in the 1940s, not only because of food scarcity resulting from the drought, but especially because of the colonial government's inability to ensure the survival of its people on the islands. In terms of the dimensions of tragedy in the show, The Hungry, especially towards the end, turns into a problem that involves not only an era and a country, but that also extends beyond the borders of Cape Verde.

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"The 2012-2013 harvest: a surplus of 665,814 tons of cereals" by Marc Kowoma DOH and Catherine Ilboudo – Presentation by Kpénahi Traoré

Journal excdent_cralier

Food security is one of the most common areas of concern in African countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Among the countries concerned are certainly Burkina Faso, Niger and Mali. This article focuses on the case of Burkina Faso, which is approaching the end of the 2012-2013 agricultural season with a cereal surplus.


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Africa could emulate the defects rather than the merits of the Brazilian model - Interview with the Economist and Sociologist Carlos Lopes, by Jesus Maria de Lourdes


In an interview with the Brazilian magazine "Epoca" in the wake of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio +20), held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in July 2012, Carlos Lopes gave a report of the Rio Conference and drew a comparison with the situation in Africa. He laid out his view that, after the Second World War, there was a period of about 30 years in which the global economy grew. Over this period, the major concern was with the generation of wealth, rather than its distribution. It was only years later that we began to worry about equality, the distribution of wealth and the depletion of the Earth’s resources. It is these three elements that gave rise to the concept of sustainable development.
When asked about progress towards the goal of sustainable global development, Carlos Lopes replied that the data on which any assessment of the state of the world’s health should rest should be obtained from an analysis of the Millennium Development Goals, established by the United Nations. These goals include social, economic and environmental issues. By 2011, only a few of these goals had been reached. But in the economist Lopes’ view, we are now halfway to achieving them. Few believe, however, that it will be possible to reach all of the goals by 2015, accepting, nonetheless, that the goals are realistic, rather than goals aimed at a total transformation of the planet.
In terms of the situation in Africa, Lopez maintains that even if it is true that Africa is experiencing economic growth of 5.8%, the continent still faces four problems, which have a major impact on the quality of this growth.
These include the continent’s rapid population growth, as well as the overlapping conficts in two key areas: the Sahel, south of the Sahara, and the area from the Rift Valley in the Horn of Africa to the Great Lakes of the Congo, Rwanda and Burundi.
A third problem relates to the composition of GDP in African countries, an ever-decreasing percentage of which is accounted for by agricultural products. The final issue concerns Africa’s large reserves of arable land. According to Lopes, Africa is unfortunately unable to exploit these areas without damaging the environment. The challenge is that of attracting attention on the global stage, and ensuring codes of conduct among researchers in order to advance studies of agricultural policies and bolster the case for defending the rights of the most vulnerable.
There is much to be done in this regard. It may have tremendous consequences for Africa, but nonetheless inevitably requires great commitment.

Carlos Lopes was born in Guinea-Bissau and has a PhD in African History from the University of Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne. He was appointed Executive Secretary of the UN Economic Commission for Africa by Ban Ki-moon, and is Executive Director of UNITAR (the United Nations Institute for Training and Research). He has always been associated with major UN reform; throughout his long and distinguished career, he has founded several institutions, including the famous Research Institute of Guinea-Bissau. He has worked at the Nordic Institute of African Studies, was the UN representative in Zimbabwe and Brazil and was head of the UNDP Development Policy Division.
He was also political director under UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan. Today he manages two research and training institutions at the UN: UNITAR in Geneva and the UN System Staf College in Turin. Lopes also designed the UNDP’s sophisticated Knowledge Systems programmes, and was involved in producing the book "Capacity for Development", which contained a contribution from the Nobel Prize for Economics winner, Joseph Stiglitz.

Source: http://opais.sapo.mz/index.php/internaciona/56-internacional/21975-africa-corre-o-risco-de-copiarmelhor-os-defeitos-do-que-as-vantagens-do-modelo-brasileiro.html

"Expectations!" by Popa Matumula - Tanzania

Target 1.A: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day

A young African boy is helped by the whole community of his poor country village to pay for their studies. The community asks in return only that you return the young educated to help the village out of poverty. The boy, however, will use his knowledge to gain power and wealth for himself rather than for all ...

In a few pages the Tanzanian cartoonist Popa Matumula denounces the dangers of "easy corruption" of the African ruling classes, focusing on one of the main causes of poverty in Africa: the unwillingness of politicians and leaders to commit resources for the common good. The boy fascinated by wealth and power with which he came in contact in the city, too easily forget his humble beginnings and the help given to him by his community.

The Transportation of Oxen from Bangui to Brazzaville by Francis Kodia - Congo

1.A Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day

Congolese photographer Francis Kodia presents the journey made by beef from Bangui to Brazzaville, where they end up served at the tables of the city dwellers. His work consists of a consideration of the ways in which Africa manages its livestock and agriculture and attempts to sustain an autonomous system of production and consumption. A number of African countries have difficulties producing enough food to feed their populations and are not self-sufficient in terms of horticulture, meat and cereal production, depending instead on imports from other countries.

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"Issa Sidibe, A Middle-School Student from Toumousseni: ‘My life with the Biodigester’" by Kader Traore - Burkina Faso

The Biodigester is a complex system through which, with the removal of oxygen, organic matter is converted into biogas, offering an alternative solution in the fight against environmental degradation, climate change and poverty. This technique aims to help people to improve their lives, and was launched in 2011 in Burkina Faso, where a number of people have already experienced its benefits. Amongst these are a family living in the Cascades region of western Burkina Faso.

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"The season of the beans in Mikassou" by Baudouin Mouanda - Congo

Target 1.A Halve the proportion of people living on less than $1 a day between 1990 and 2015.


Through the photo reportage “The season of the beans in Mikassou”, the Congolese photographer Baudouin Mouanda shows the situation of farmers in Congo. In their daily lives, these farmers and their families live with less than 1 euro per day (about 1 dollar per day). But some of them have a degree, other were traders but they have not found other way for feeding their families apart from working the land for such a low salary. As highlighted during the United Nations summit in New York in 2010, the number of people living under the threshold of poverty (less than 1,25$ per day) is decreased from 1,8 to 1,4 billion of people during the period 1990-2005.


«I am in Mikassou, a village famous for the production of beans, more than 400 km southwest of Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. A little way away, groups of men and women are getting ready for work. It is without doubt, harvest season. Traders and wholesalers are busy attempting to purchase the many tons of beans, which are usually kept in storage and are needed for future harvests. Yet such practices are not appreciated by the wholesalers, whose job it is to supply the city with beans, especially since, because of the lack of rains, the rates of production are not as high as levels as in previous years. One farmer complains, "it is too hot, our fields are no longer fertile, times are tough and now ... even when it rains, the rains causes havoc during the harvest."

In the village all is not well, as the village chief seeks to deter traders who are trying to persuade farmers to sell their entire harvests, thereby increasing their supplies.

Even the earth itself, over the long run, is becoming a commodity, upon which the villagers must work to tend their fields. Among the workers are Chadians and Cameroonians in search of jobs, thereby adding to the workforce. Martin, a 38-year-old Rwandan refugee who has been in the Congo for 15 years, and who travels from village to village in search of work, explains: "Here, working in the fields, I earn 500 francs a day, or more, and with that, I can feed my family: my wife and two children”.»