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2. Achieve universal primary education

Crianças di Terra, by Nando da Cruz – Summary by Maria de Lourdes Jesus

 

Nando da Cruz was born in St. Vicente, Cape Verde, but has lived in Paris for several years. His first CD, Bahian, was released in 1988. He has published a total of 6 CDs and has been involved in a number of other musical projects. He is also a composer and has written songs for famous artists including Cesaria Evora, Ismael Lo from Senegal, Manu Lima, Dina Medina and Rene Cabral. He also designed and produced, with the best Cape Verdean artists, the video-clip Crianças di Terra, which he dedicated to the children of Cape Verde and to all children around the world.

His theatrical productions have been shown in Africa, Europe and the United States.

The video clip and the lyrics of the two songs are of great interest to those who seek to understand the strategies used in many African countries (in this case Cape Verde), to encourage families, institutions and broader society to work together to protect children and invest in their education, in order to provide them with a more secure future.

 

Download the presentation "Crianças di Terra"

Download the lyrics

Taking Part in School – by Romaric Bakoua

 

Through the series "Taking Part in School," the Congolese photographer Romaric Bakoua emphasises the importance of education and the need for greater awareness on the part of states of their duty to promote free education to ensure the development of their country and citizens.

 

Romaric Bakoua is a Congolese photographer who was born in 1977, and graduated from the Normal School for Teaching (ENI). He met Baudouin Mouanda, who taught him the basics of photography during a training course, after which he decided to join the Generation Elili Group, which still exists today. Romaric works on issues related to everyday life, including, for example, "the woman at the hairdresser", "the dowry", "the craftsman" and "pain".

For several years he has also been carrying out photographic projects based on the school in which he teaches.

 

Historically, education and schooling for elementary-school children has been of paramount importance. Teachers contribute to the intellectual empowerment of their students, taking account of their differences and individual characteristics to facilitate progress in their professional careers.

However, given the severe financial difficulties of some families in Africa, children are not always literate. Today, in the Congo, continuing efforts need to be made to ensure the democratization of education in the school system.

 

States must understand the importance of providing free education at all levels of society. If systems of private education persist, directly or indirectly, children from disadvantaged backgrounds will always be in a weaker position.

Millennium Development Goals: Goal 2 - Achieve universal primary education - Republic of South Africa – Summary by Abdallah Katunzi

This report outlines the successes and challenges regarding MDG 2 - universal access to primary education - in South Africa. It is a useful reading for someone who wants to understand how South Africa – a powerhouse in the continent – fairs in goal 2.

 

 

The report highlights the situation regarding the universal primary education in South Africa. It details issues of policy, enrolment rates, completion rates, literacy rates as well as initiatives to improve the quality and access to universal primary education.

The report notes that the enrolment rates for primary education have been increasing and that enrolment ratios for girls have been slightly higher than those of their boys’ counterparts. Data in the report indicates that in 2002 enrolment for male was 96.4 against 97.0 for female, in 2003 (96.9 against 97.8), 2004 (97.9 against 98.5), 2005 (98.1 to 98.4), 2006 (97.9 to 98.4), 2007 (98.1 to 98.6), 2008 (98.0 to 98.2) and 2009 (98.4 against 98.8).

The report notes that despite this positive progress, some children with disability are not attending schools because of their disability. It is estimated that 22% of the total children with disability were not attending schools in the country.

On completion rate, class repetitions pose a great challenge to attain the needed completion rate of primary education especially among boys. Repetition, the report notes, is a major problem in South Africa’s education system. To substantiate this, the report cites the National Income Dynamic Study of 2009 which indicates that 57% of adults and 25% of children respondents have repeated at least one class. Generally, girls outperform boys in the completion of primary education. On literacy rate, the report indicates that it has increased from 86.0% in 2002 to 91.0% in 2009.

The report concludes by noting that ‘South Africa has almost achieved the goal of Universal primary education before the year 2015. However, a lot still needs to be done to address the issue of quality of education, which can be seen through repetition and scholastic retardation at various enrolment levels for the majority of the children’.

Download Millennium Development Goals: Goal 2 - Achieve universal primary education..

Source: Statistics South Africa

Lela Bidion returns to Cape Verde after 40 years in search of his daughter - Presented by Maria de Lourdes Jesus

 

This theatrical production paints the extraordinary picture of a woman on her way to independence and to achieving her place in society. Once she achieves her independence the behaviour of other women changes signiciantly, as Tomazia portrays with a certain pride in her role as Dr. Filomena Teixeira. The play provides a unique perspective on MDGs 2 and 3.

Download the abstract of Lela Bidion returns to Cape Verde after 40 years in search of his daughter.

“Millennium Development Goals: Goal 2 - Achieve universal primary education” by Republic of South Africa – Summary by Abdallah Katunzi

 

This report outlines the successes and challenges regarding MDG 2 - universal access to primary education - in South Africa. It is a useful reading for someone who wants to understand how South Africa – a powerhouse in the continent – fairs in goal 2.

 

Midje ma Tambor - Corn and drum - Presentation by Maria de Lourdes Jesus

 

It is highly worthwhile watching "Midj ma Tambor", a beautiful film that pays tribute to corn, a fundamental ingredient of traditional Cape Verdean dishes such as catchupa. With his melodic voice, Dudu Araújo sings about catchupa – he creates a perfect harmony between singing about midj (corn) and playing the drum, which in turn sets the pace for the sexuality and fertility dances known as "Cola S . Jon ".

Download the presentation of "Midj ma Tambor"

"The Activist Idalina Bota Defends the Disabled" by César André – Summary by Maria de Lourdes Jesus

Disability grande

It is worth reading the article by the activist Idalina Bota, which analyses the discrimination to which disabled children in Angola, including her own family, are subject.

It is these families themselves that create the conditions that nurture this discrimination. They are the ones who create and build up negative myths and stereotypes around children with disabilities, who are often considered a disgrace, and are therefore often abandoned or subjected to physical violence both within their family and communities.

Download the abstract of "The Activist Idalina Bota Defends the Disabled"

"The Elderly learn to read and write" by Constança de Pina

 

The article relates to the Italian saying: "In life, you always learn." This saying is very interesting if we consider what our lives would be like if we weren’t able to read or write. Learning to read and write has given these elderly people the ability to continue to live without eternally depending on the time and good will of others, while also allowing them to maintain their privacy. This experience represents an ongoing and relevant challenge that needs to be met in order to achieve Millennium Development Goal 2 "Achieve universal primary education".

In Cape Verde, the illiteracy rate in 1975, the year of the country’s independence, was 63%. According to the latest census data, this had decreased to 17% by 2010, with illiteracy concentrated among those over the age of fifty. In 2010/2011, 2,557 people in 22 municipalities on the archipelago of Cape Verde benefited from education and adult training.

The article aims to raise awareness of an interesting experience: the provision of literacy training to the elderly in Cape Verde, an initiative launched to enable senior citizens to learn to read and write. The goal is to help these elderly people, who are keen to learn, to become independent, and to reduce their dependence on family and friends, especially in dealing with documentation from organisations or private correspondence.

Today, those who cannot read and write (who in Cape Verde are mainly elderly citizens) are assisted by family members who sign forms on their behalf, or who simply sign with a cross or a fingerprint.

Sources: Rádio Educativa: http://www.radioeducativa.cv/index.php?paginas=21&id_cod=1212; Jornal Expresso das Ilhas http://www.expressodasilhas.sapo.cv/ - Direcção Geral de Alfabetização e Formação de Adultos.

Respondents: Nair Gonçalves, Florencio Varela and Carol Mede-Añonuevo

Download "The Elderly learn to read and write"

"The Importance of Education to the Development of Cape Verde" by José Mário Mendes Correia

 

In his essay The Importance of Education to the Development of Cape Verde (2005), José Mário Mendes Correia describes the key factors which have, both directly and indirectly, influenced the rise of Cape Verde to the status of a middle income country, and its success in achieving, amongst others, MDG 2, to "achieve universal primary education". His degree thesis argues that education represents one of the most powerful factors in fostering development.

Download an abstract of "The Importance of Education to the Development of Cape Verde"

Download "The Importance of Education to the Development of Cape Verde"